TOPIC 2: SAFETY IN OUR ENVIRONMENT | BIOLOGY FORM 1
TOPIC 2: SAFETY IN OUR ENVIRONMENT | BIOLOGY FORM 1
Reduces fear of death
Brings hope and encouragement to the patient
Relieves the victim’s pain
Prevents the illness or injury from becoming worse
Helps a person to recover from shock
It shows spirit of helping each other.
Aid kit is a small box which is used to keep instruments and chemicals
for First Aid. The first Aid kit should be placed in a safe and
A pair of scissors
New razor blade
Gentian violet (GV)
Petroleum jelly or Vaseline
Iodine tincture or spirit
Anti-pain (pain killers) e.g. Panadol
Sterilized forceps and pins
A pair of tongs
A pair of scissors:is used for cutting dressing materials such as gauze, bandages·
Gauze:is used to cover the wound to prevent dirt and micro-organisms from entering.
Assorted bandages: are used for securing an injured part in order to protect and support it.
Adhesive plaster:are used for covering minor wounds/cuts and grazes·
Cotton wool:is used for cleaning and drying wounds and applying medicine·
New razor blade:used for cutting any flaps of skin when cleaning the wound.
Gentian Violet (GV):is used as an antiseptic to clean wounds.
Petroleum jelly or Vaseline:used for treatment of burns
Safety pins:used for holding/securing bandages.
Iodine tincture or spirit:used for cleaning wounds to reduce bleeding.
Soap:is used for washing wounds, hands and medical facilities.
Anti-pain (pain killers):used to reduce pain.
Sterilized forceps and pins:are used for removing splinters and grit from wounds.
Liniment:used to reduce muscle pains.
A pair of tongs:used for holding pieces of bandages when cleaning the wounds.
Antibiotic solution:is used for applying in the wounds for killing micro-organisms.
She/he should have ability to assess the problem and give immediate and appropriate help.
She/he must be able to act quickly, quietly, calmly
She/he should be sympathetic to the victim
should be able to recognize dangerous signs and give immediate help for
example detecting immediately if -breathing has stopped or is failing
-there is severe bleeding-poisoning-fractures
She/he should be able to help the injured person without unnecessary movement
First Aider should keep himself/herself safe to avoid dangers from the
patient. Some of the dangers that s/he may face include infection by
pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.So they should:
Wear protective gloves to avoid contact with blood
Wear eye protection
Wear masks and gowns.
Bruises Fainting Burns Sprain Bone fracture Snake bite
poisonous snake has two fangs one on each side of the upper jaw. The
fangs are as sharp as needles. At the root of the fang there is a poison
gland. When the snake strikes, it jabs downwards hitting the skin with
its fangs and releases a few drops of venom.
Immediate pain and swelling after the bite
The skin becomes purple One or two punctured points may be seen where the fangs passed through the skin
are armed with a single curved stinger in the tail. Through this, they
inject powerful venom that may produce convulsions and temporary
Put ice on the injured area to relieve pain and prevent spread of the poison
Treat for shock
<!–[endif]–>Rush the person to the hospital
someone is bitten by a dog, keep the dog under observation to see
whether it has rabies. Rabies is one of the worst diseases known. It is
caused by a virus which is present in the saliva of the infected animal.
the animal has rabies, it will become restless, excitable, refuse to
eat and barking tone will change. Later the dog then starts barking
<!–[endif]–>Wash your hands well with soap and water
Wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water to remove the animal’s saliva using running water.
Cover the wound with clean gauze.
Bandage it carefully
Take the victim to the hospital.
Spider bites :
Some spiders have a harmless venom to man. But the black spiders can be
dangerous to man. The injured person becomes weak and dizzy, feels
nauseated and the muscles of the stomach may become hard especially in
Black and fire ants, bees : When a
person has been stung by e.g. bees, severe pains are felt
immediately.The person may be shocked, itching and swelling may follow.
Remove the insect’s sting
Apply household ammonia and ice cubes
Treat for shock
you are with a person that is chocking, first notice if person can
talk, breath or cough. If so stay with that person until the air way is
cleared by coughing.
First stand behind the chocking victim
Put your arms around the person, placing your firsts just below the breast bone as shown above.
Give a series of quick, sharp upward and inward thrusts
every household there are different kinds of things which are
poisonous. Some are deadly even on a very small dose. Others may be more
or less harmless when taken in small quantities.
Look for the poison
Identify the poison
Neutralize the poison by giving the victim plenty of milk to drink or egg white or water.
Induce vomiting if the poison is not strong acid or alkali as these are corrosive substance.
If the problem is severe, rush him or her to the hospital.
Severe pain around the injured part
Lack of movement
Fainting or shock
Treat for a shock
Keep the patient absolutely quite
Prevent further damage to injured part by using a splint.
Bring the bone back into fixed position
Bandage it firmly in place so that it does not slip out again
Lie down the person with his feet higher than his head
Loosen the belt and shoes
If the person is conscious give him some tea or any soft drink.
Treat his/her wounds if any
Stop any bleeding Keep the person warm if he/she feels cold
Switch off the electricity immediately
not possible to switch off the electricity, take the victim away from
the source of electricity using a dry wooden material or rope.
Loosen any tight clothes
If the person is unconscious, apply mouth to mouth respiration
Treat for shock
Take the person to the hospital immediately
Wash your hands using water and soap
Wash the bruised part
Apply cold clothes or ice immediately to reduce pain and swelling
If swelling continues take the victim to the hospital
Diseases e.g. malaria
Physiological condition e.g. pregnancy
Unpleasant smell or taste
Drinking a lot of water when thirsty.
Give the person a rehydration drink or oral rehydration salts solution.
Allow the person to have a complete rest
If vomiting continues, take the patient to the hospital.
Lay the victim down
Massage the cramped area gently
Apply some anti-cramp ointment to the affected area
If the problem persists seek for a medical help
Loss of movement
Lay the person on his back and tilt his head backwards so that his mouth falls forward
Pull the tongue forward.Use a dry cloth to hold the tongue.
Hold his nose close with your fingers
out mouth to mouth breathing by blowing gently into the person’s mouth
about 30 times a minute but do not blow too hard.This process is called artificial respiration.
Keep the person warm.
is caused by a temporary fall in the blood supply to the brain,
sometimes brought on by emotional shock or prolonged standing.
Keep the victim lying down with his/her legs raised in order to maintain blood pressure in the brain.
Do not try to warm the victim.
Loosen any tight clothing around the neck, chest and waist.
Supply the patient with plenty of fresh air by fanning or mouth to mouth respiration.
If there is no improvement rush the victim to the hospital.
bleeding with blood flowing out rapidly must be stopped at once by
pressing with fingers directly on the wound or pressing the edges of the
Lay the victim down.
If the wound is in a limb raise it provided it is not fractured.
When the bleeding has slowed down press a pad of material over the wound and tie it rapidly in place.
If blood oozes through, apply more material on top of the original pad.
Wash your hands well by using soap and water
Wash the wound
Cover the wound with clean dressing dipped in iodine solution and bandage the wound
High blood pressure
Rheumatic fever Or
Let the victim sit quiet. This makes the heart beat to slow down and hence reduces bleeding.
Let the victim lean the head slightly backward or make him/ her lie down on his/ her back.
Press on the side of the nose where the blood is flowing for about 10 minutes.
Allow the victim to breath through the mouth
Apply cold, wet compression over the nose and face. If this does not work take the victim to the hospital
burn is caused by dry heat e.g. flame of hot object. A scald is caused
by a steam or boiling water. The treatment is the same for both burns
and scalds except that in scalds any wet clothing should be carefully
removed while in burns clothing should be left in place. If clothes are
burning cover the victim with a heavy blanket to cut off the air supply.
the burning limb into clean cold water or press the affected area
gently with an ice block. Do not break the blisters. Cover the injured
area with clean dry cloth to keep away bacteria entering the damaged
tissue. If the situation is serious take the victim to the hospital
Strip off all clothing which has been contaminated by the chemical.
Wash the affected area with plenty of water.
Apply moist packs soaked in a weak solution of baking soda.
Vinegar can be used for alkaline burns.
Pulling out the tongue
The victim may swallow finely crushed ice
Holding a breath for a long time may also help
Children can be given a teaspoonful of a weak solution of sodium bicarbonate or lemon juice.
First Aid kit
First Aid kit
Sent to hospital
Given a heavy blow
Given a fluid
Identify the poison
Give plenty of milk
Eating plenty of pepper
- First Aid kit is an immediate help which is given to a sick or injured person before sending him/her to the hospital _________
- One of the importance of First Aid is to give hope the victim _________
- A good First Aider should have the ability to recognize dangerous signs ___________________
- Venom is the poison of the snake __________________
- Liniment is used to reduce muscle pains _____________
- It is not necessary to offer First Aid to a snake bite person _______________
- Giving First Aid prolongs the problem ______________
- First Aid
- First Aid kit
- State any four importance of the First Aid
- List down five components of the First Aid kit
- State any four qualities of the First Aider
- Cotton wool
- Iodine tincture
- Assorted bandages
- Petroleum jelly
- Snake bite
- What is shock?
- State any four causes of shock
- Enumerate the ways of preventing shock.
- It enables them to prolong their lives in case they are administered with ARVs.
- It reduces fear of death.
- It enables them to perform their daily activities without fear.
- It reduces depression and self dislike.
who are infected with HIV need care and support form their friends,
families and the community, especially when they are ill. Friends and
family members sometimes worry that they might be infected when caring
for a person with HIV.
cannot be passed on by touching, hugging, coughing, or sharing eating
utensils. It is possible for people who are infected with HIV to live
long healthy lives. You can help those who are infected by:
- showing love, respect and support;
- knowing the facts about HIV/AIDS and talking openly about the disease;
- helping to reduce stress and stressful situations;
- helping to provide balanced and nutritious meals;
- seeking for support from family and friends as well as from other people who are HIV positive;
- encouraging them to live with hope;
- encouraging them to be active. Do not stop them from doing things they like;
time with the sick person. For example help them to prepare their
meals, clean their rooms, make their beds and take them to a walk if
they can walk. Encourage family and friend to do this too;
them to get treatment if they are sick. Most infections are easily
treated and cured, even if a person is HIV positive.
- Cleaning their houses, utensils, clothes, etc.;
- trying to relieve any pain the person may be feeling, for example by administering pain killers; and
- treating them with respect and dignity making them as comfortable as possible.
may be situations where you need to clean up body fluids or blood from
someone infected with HIV. Do not touch body fluids such as blood, stool
and urine with your bare hands. It is important to use rubber or
plastic gloves or other barriers such as plastic bags or thick cloth to
prevent direct contact. Make sure that you have these easily available
at all times.
- Wash the gloves or plastic bags in hot water every
time after you have used them. Keep clothes and bedding with blood,
diarrhoea or body fluids away from other washings.
- Wash the bedding and clothes with soap. Hang them where there is a plenty of sunshine and air circulation to dry well.
- Do not share toothbrushes, razors, skin piecing instruments, or needles
- Cover your wounds with a clean and sterile bandage. Buy disposable gloves so that once used they are discarded.
- Dispose off properly the vomits or bandages used when dressing wounds.
about the ways HIV can and cannot be transmitted. Talk to your friends
and family. Contact your local clinic for more information
stigma and discrimination exist worldwide, although they manifest
themselves differently across countries, communities, religious groups
and individuals. Possible consequences of HIV-related stigma could be:
- loss of income and livelihood
- loss of marriage and childbearing options
- poor care within the health sector
- withdrawal of caregiving in the home
- loss of hope and feelings of worthlessness
- loss of reputation
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