**TOPIC 2: FRACTIONS ~ MATHEMATICS FORM 1**

**TOPIC 2: FRACTIONS ~ MATHEMATICS FORM 1**

A fraction is a number which is expressed in the form of **a/b** where **a –** is the top number called numerator and **b**– is the bottom number called denominator.

A Fraction

Describe a fraction

A fraction is a number which is expressed in the form of **a/b** where **a –** is the top number called numerator and **b**– is the bottom number called denominator.

Consider the diagram below

The shaded part in the diagram above is 1 out of 8, hence mathematically it is written as 1/8

Example 1

(a) 3 out of 5 ( three-fifths) = 3/5

Example 2

(b) 7 0ut of 8 ( i.e seven-eighths) = 7/8

Example 3

5/12=(5 X 3)/(12 x 3) =15/36

3/8 =(3 x 2)/(8 X 2) = 6/16

Dividing the numerator and denominator by the same number (This method is used to simplify the fraction)

Difference between Proper, Improper Fractions and Mixed Numbers

Distinguish proper, improper fractions and mixed numbers

**Proper fraction –**is a fraction in which the numerator is less than denominator

**Improper fraction** -is a fraction whose numerator is greater than the denominator

**Mixed fraction –**is a fraction which consist of a whole number and a proper fraction

(a) To convert mixed fractions into improper fractions, use the formula below

(b)To convert improper fractions into mixed fractions, divide the numerator by the denominator

Example 7

Convert the following mixed numbers into improper fractions

Addition of Fractions

Add fractions

Operations on fractions involves **addition, subtraction, multiplication** and **division**

Addition and subtraction of fractions is done by putting both fractions under the same denominator and then add or subtract

Multiplication

of fractions is done by multiplying the numerator of the first fraction

with the numerator of the second fraction, and the denominator of the

first fraction with the denominator the second fraction.

For mixed fractions, convert them first into improper fractions and then multiply

Division of fractions is done by taking the first fraction and then multiply with the reciprocal of the second fraction

For mixed fractions, convert them first into improper fractions and then divide

Subtraction of Fractions

Subtract fractions

Multiplication of Fractions

Multiply fractions

Division of Fractions

Divide fractions

Mixed Operations on Fractions

Perform mixed operations on fractions

Word Problems Involving Fractions

Solve word problems involving fractions

Example 17

Musa is years old. His father is 3¾times as old as he is. How old is his father?

1¾of a material are needed to make suit. How many suits can be made from

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