THIS TIME TOMORROW BY NGUGI WA THIONG’O
PLAY: THIS TIME TOMORROW
PLAYWRIGHT: NGUGI WA THIONG’O
SETTING: UHURU MARKET IN KENYA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
PUBLISHER: KENYA LITERATURE BUREAU
YEAR OF PUBLICATION: 1970
The playwright portrays several issues that led to protest which is the major theme of the play though there are also other themes. The author shows that the colonial legacy has been the source of different problems which lead to dissatisfaction and later cause protest.
The colonial impacts are like land alienation, introduction of new culture like dressing style of the white people, establishment of town life associated with so many social ,economic as well as environmental problems.
The people lived in classes such as few enjoy the high living standard while the majority are starving or living the poor life and the minority seems to be neglecting the majority.
The playwright reveals how the majority struggle for independence through the Mau Mau a movement that is staged in the forest. The Mau Mau movement starts and draws so many people into the forest to fight so as to liberate Kenya and regain the land that has been taken away by the white settlers.
People like Dedan Kimath, Njang’os husband and the shoe makers are examples of some people who fought for independence in the forest. For example the shoe maker says, “We were fighting for freedom, we were fighting for our soil.”
The playwright also shows that some of freedom fighters are arrested and sent to detention camps, like the shoe maker. The shoe maker says”I was arrested and sent to Monyani…. A concentration/detention camp.” The stranger is also arrested and sent to a detention camp who is shot dead.
Despite those expenses in the forest that involved arrest and death of some people, the freedom fighters do not give up. The fighters also expect to live a good life after the independence.
LIFE AFTER INDEPENDENCE.
The freedom fighters had illusion/hopes that after getting independence they should get jobs, good houses and their land. After independence the new government of our fellow black leaders betrays the masses/people especially the freedom fighters.
The minorities (leaders) take the opportunity and begin to enjoy the national cake (wealth). Those who have been involved in the struggle for freedom, like the shoe maker and the stranger, are left to suffer and hence living a poor life.
The shoe maker is earning his living by repairing shoes and stays in the slum. Also the families of the heroes who died in the forest, like Njong’o and her daughter, suffer terribly. They have decided to engage in petty (small) business of selling soup so as to be able to survive in the slums. The playwright goes on showing the living conditions in the slums (shanty towns).
The people in the slums at Uhuru Market are in poor conditions, the environment is filthy (dirty) and the government has forgotten them despite the important role played in fighting for Uhuru (this is a betrayal).
Bad enough, the government wants to demolish or destroy their shanty/slums by saying that the place is dirty and looks filthy in the eyes of the visitors (tourists) who come from metropolitan countries.
Inspector Kiongo is heard saying,”By twelve o’clock today these slums/shanty must be demolished. They are great shame on our city. Tourist from America, Britain and West German are disgusted.”
This is betrayal and humiliation since the government has done nothing to help the majority and it has abandoned them, leaving them suffering while they drive expensive cars. Yet the government goes on with the move to demolish the slums without showing them where to go and settle. This is humiliation or dehumanization of the highest level.
The shoe maker says “it is not that I don’t want to move, but the government should give me the place to go.”
The playwright also shows that people in the slums keep on drinking and fighting. The city is full of people who cheat other people, especially young men, cheating girls, abandoning them and later they throw them in the trenches and live them to die like animals.
In the slums, there are informal activities like food vending (Njongo is selling soup), making jembes and pangas by Tinsmith and repairing of shoes as shown by the shoe makers.
There are problems of unemployment and poor living caused by poverty. Example Njongo and her daughter are sharing the floor as bed. The slums/shanty are made of poor material such as cardboards and rotting tins.
DEMOLITION OF THE SLUMS
Despite the protest staged by the slum dwellers the government goes on with the plan to demolish the shanty houses. It sends the police and bulldozers to pull down the shanty houses at Uhuru market. Njango laments (complains) in disillusionment (lack of hope) ,” They are herding us out like cattle, where shall I go now? Tonight? Where shall I be this time tomorrow?”
The government has shown brutality against the people by implementing the discussion so fast without giving time to people to organize themselves so that they can move comfortably.
This Time Tomorrow is the play on the poor slum dwellers of Uhuru market who fought for their independence in both forests and detention camps with the expectation of decent houses, jobs, land but nothing seemed to change after that.
The word “uhuru” (independence) was doubted for them as many of the natives were still poor, landless, and jobless. The upper class is explained to enjoy life, secure employment, own land as well as driving Mercedes Benz and long American cars while the lower class is seen to suffer in slums.
The play opens with an article of the journalist that reports the way slums of poor dwellers came tumbling down. Rotting tins flew high in the air, the card board walls and the dry mud squeaked and crashed. It was like the legendary wall of Jericho. The city council warriors with their sickles, scythes and batons hacked left and right. This was done through “Clean-the-city campaign”
It refers to an act which indicates a lack of loyalty to somebody or something. Betrayal by the African leaders appears to be the center of this play. The majority of Kenyans decided to go to the forest to fight for freedom of Kenya because they were promised by their leaders that after independence they will have a good life, for example good jobs and good houses, as well as the land that had been taken away by the white settlers, but after the attainment of UHURU the new government betrays the people.
For example one can see that the government has left the people to live a very poor life in slums without helping them. It is just the “chosen few” who enjoys the national cake while the majorities are living in miserable lives and they lack hope. For example Njango’s shelter is made of poor constructive materials that are cardboards and rotting tins. She is sharing the floor with her daughter WANJIRO as bed.
Also the crowd betrayed the stranger by running away when they saw the police. Moreover WANJIRO betrays her mother by running away with ASINJO despite the protest from her mother. EG WANJIRO tells her mother that she is going away with ASINJO and that he is waiting for her.
The term harassment refers to that behavior that threatens or torments somebody, annoying, attacking or bothering him or her especially persistently. The writer of this play clearly shows a miserable life that the ex-freedom fighters together with their wives, daughters and sons live at Uhuru Market.
Despite all these sufferings, the government wants to demolish their slums on the reason that they are a great shame on their city to the extent that tourists from America, Britain and West Germany are disgusted with the dirt that is slowly creeping into a city that used to be the pearl of Africa.
This is harassment in a sense that the government wants the people to move away from their settlement without showing them the other place to go. This is well proved in the book when the Shoemaker answers the journalist during the interview.“It is not that I don’t want to move. But the government should give me a place to go. After all, I deserve it. I was a member of the party-an active member you might say. I took an oath in 1950… We were fighting for freedom… I was arrested and sent to Manyani”: (pg: 4).
The term love can simply defined to mean the act to feel romantic and sexual desire and longing for somebody. There is an element of true love portrayed by the playwright in this play. This concerns the two lovers Asinjo and Wanjiro.
In this book, it is clearly shown that despite all the impossible conditions put forward by Njango (Wanjiro’s mother) to Asinjo not to have relationship with her daughter, Asinjo is determined to fight for his love to Wanjiro despite the fact that they come from different tribes. Also, the act of Wanjiro to go away with Asinjo proves that she truly loves him.
Consider the following conversation: You can’t let an old woman go on shutting you away from the good things of life! When I used to come here, she drove me away with her wild tongue. Said that I was jobless, that I was not of your tribe. What does it matter? I have now got a good job, and many girls want me. If I did not love you, would I have come back after all the names your mother called? Would I? (pg: 45).
The term Protest refers to an act of expressing strong opposition to or disapproval of something in the form of a public demonstration or other actionIn this play, the slum dwellers use passive protest against humiliation done by the government of Kenyan which had reached a point of demolishing their slums.
For example, the 1st Customer is shown protesting against government injustice by saying: “They cannot destroy our homes” Also Njango is shown dissatisfied by the government iron hands of demolishing their settlement.
She thinks that the government is not fair to carry out the Clean-the City Campaign without giving them another place to dwell. Njango’s protest is evidenced in the book when she talks to her daughter, Wanjiro: “City Council or nor City Council. I am not moving from this place….. This is not the old City Council. But old or new, I am not pulling down my house, do you hear?” (pg: 38).
The term illiteracy is the situation of having or showing little or no knowledge of a particular subject. In this play for instance, the playwright reveals the question of illiteracy among the majority of the Kenyan citizens at large particularly those who dwelt at Uhuru Market.
Most of the daughters, son and wives of the Kenyan real freedom fighters had not been given an opportunity to go to school to get formal education. Most of them fail to know how to read and write and some of them do not even know their ages.
For example, when the journalist interview Tinsmith and Shoemaker, both of them at different times are shown to fail to tell their ages. Not only that but also even when the City Council gave the slum dwellers the notice about the demolition, people had to ask the Stranger to write the City Council a letter to ask him to give them a few months of grace. They had to tell the stranger write the letter to the City Council just because most of them could not read and write.
This refers to the state of not having enough money to take care of basic needs such as food, clothing and housing. It is to this where we see most of Kenyans citizens live a miserable life due to the fact that they are both forgotten and betrayed by their political leaders.
Most of the citizens are shown in this book to be unemployed in regular jobs the situation which compels the slum dwellers lives in extreme poverty. The Africans, particularly political leaders are not concerned with the welfare of the people rather; they consider their political positions as an advantage of enriching themselves, feeding their bellies and their families.
For example at the beginning of this play, the dawn light reveals the inside of Njango’s shelter made of cardboard and rotting tin. This wife of a freedom fighter (Njango) and her daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed. As that is not enough, another good example of poverty among masses in this book is further proved when Wanjiro, the daughter of a freedom fighter is heard complaining as follows;
“Look at me. I have no clothes like other girls. I am now a woman. Yet no man dares glance in my direction. Well, maybe once or twice, but only to ask: who is that think in rags? Asinjo was different though. Used to touch my breasts. He even said I was beautiful.”
The term awareness can be simply defined to mean that state in which a person tends to have knowledge of something including both its advantages and advantages from having observed it or been told about it. Some the characters in this play have been portrayed to have some elements of self awareness on various things that happening in their particular society.
One of the characters with self awareness is Asinjo (Wanjiro’s boyfriend) who is aware that tribalism does not matter a thing when it comes to love affairs. Apart from Asinjo, another character portrayed to have self awareness is Wanjiro who is aware that education is very much important in life. This is well evidenced in our play during conversation between Wanjiro and her mother, Njango,
Njango: You want to imitate the birds, do you, Wanjiro? Remember birds don’t have to kill themselves in order to live. And do they need money to buy food? No. do they have to buy clothes and pay school fees for little brasts like you and your brother? No.”
Wanjiro: “Mother, you mock me with your talk of clothes and school. Where is my brother? You sent him to my uncle in the country so that he might attend school. Me, you kept here to work for you. Where are the clothes you me? Look at other girls in this place. They wear clean frocks on Saturday and Sunday. I am ashamed to walk in the streets.” (pg: 35).
This is the act of protesting change or new ideas. Njango is conservative in the party, for example she prevents her daughter from marrying a man from another tribe. Wanjiro and Asinjo take her to be an old woman who does not know the needs of a young women in the modern time. This shows that Njango is ignorant and hence conservative, as she does not change with time and this is contributed by the fact that she is old.
This means the lack of knowledge or information on a certain thing. The problem of ignorance is seen when some of the slum dwellers cannot read and write and also cannot tell when they were born. For example the shoe maker tells the journalist “I don’t know my age.
”Also the stranger gets a problems in making people understand him when he tells them. “let us stand together” Because of their ignorance they believe that the stranger can perform his magic to save them. 1st customer “Why don’t we held a meeting with the stranger?
He works in magic, will he not blind their eyes?” 2nd customer, “yes the stranger’s magic save us” this also shows ignorance because people believes the stranger can prevent the government from destructing their houses by using magic.
the poor slum dwellers are explained to be landless, example in (Page 47), the stranger questions his fellow slum dwellers about land, “We fought for the land but where is the land?” The upper class forces poor people like Njango who is a widow to leave her home without showing her where to go. Her slum is finally demolished.
Poor living condition
the slum dwellers are shown to live in a place that is not suitable for human life. The place is full of rotting tins and card boards which are used as the materials for building their slums. The stench of human urine (In page 34). Wanjiro and Njango share their floor as a bed, even the soup sold symbolizes poor life ( bones, decaying meat with white maggots)Oppression, the upper class is shown to have cruel or unjust exercise of power (authority). People are tortured in their places. The police men with batons hit and force them to leave their homes without any compensation.
Disunity among the slum dwellers in fighting for their rights
The term disunity refers to a lack of unity within a group, especially one cause by a disagreement or a difference of opinion. The question of disunity is well portrayed in this book by the writer the stranger beseeches the slum dwellers not to run and fight for their homes but the first and second customers tell others to run away from the police.
The stranger is arrested for inciting the crowd to violence and civil disobedience ( page 48).N The playwright stresses the point that in order for any struggle against injustice to succeed, the question of unity among the members is very crucial
Illusion is a false idea or belief about somebody or something. For example, in the play, the freedom fighters had illusion or expectation that after the attainment of independence they would be given good jobs, houses and their land. But it is not the way they have been thinking. Things have become quite opposite to their expectation.
For example the stranger says “we fought for UHURU because we were told it would mean decent jobs and decent houses.” The expected situation is not realized since after independence people have been suffering, no jobs, no lands and even no good houses.
Another example of illusion is shown when people believed that the stranger have the magic power to save them while in reality it is not true. For example the 1st customer says “why don’t we held a meeting with the stranger? He works in magic. Will he not blind their eyes?” but it was not true that the stranger worked in magic but he was insisting on unity.
Awareness refers to the state of knowing that something exists and is important. Knowing about the situation and it’s positive and negative impacts. For example, someone can be aware of the importance of education, effects of tribalism and the significance of unity in the struggle.
For example the stranger is aware that in any struggle people should have strong determination, unity and courage. For example he says “let us stand together, let us with one voice tell the new government we want our homes, we love them.”Asinjo is aware that tribalism is a problem, it can bring problems in development or changes.
He knows that tribe is no longer a problem in marriage. Njango also shows awareness on problems that face women in town who takes decision like that of Wanjiro of running aways with boys. Njango tells Wanjiro “Have you not heard of a women left in the gutter? Women stabbed and left to die in the streets?”
Refers to the misunderstanding, clashes, quarrels between people due to some differences in interests or ideas. Conflicts can lead to disunity, enmity and underdevelopment. It can also lead to positive changes, such as it can change the nature of treatment that people get in particular place by their government.
In “This Time Tomorrow” conflicts have been portrayed as follows:
Intra-person conflict: This is the type of conflict that normally occurs within or inside somebody’s mind. In our play, Wanjiro is represented as one of the characters who disturbed by intra-person conflict and this is because she was not happy to live a poor kind of life at Uhuru Market.
Similarly, Njango is represented by the playwright as the character with intra-person conflict as she witnesses with her two eyes that her shack is being pushed down by the bulldozer, she did not know what to do and where to go. So long as she had no more strength to defend her own, the only thing she could manage doing in time was just lamenting.
Political conflict: political conflict refers to the inter-personal or inter-group conflicts in which members of different political parties or different nations come into serious misunderstanding over the political affairs. In this book, the writer shows a serious conflict between Kenyan freedom fighters against the British colonialists. The Kenyan freedom fighters fought for a number of years until finally attained their lost freedom.
Family conflict: This is the type of conflict which involves the family members only. In this play, the playwright represents the family conflict between Njango against her daughter Wanjiro. The source of this conflict is that, Wanjiro thinks that her mother is not fair to take her brother to school and at the same time uses her as her servant and on top of that, the mother is not buying her clothes like the other girls in that place, when Wanjiro complains of this, a serious debate between them arises.
Government vs. the citizens. This is represented in the book between governments against the citizens. The source of this conflict is dissatisfaction among the citizens towards what they think that their government has betrayed them. Since the attainment of the independence, the government has not been able to fulfill any of the promises to its citizens such as descent jobs and good life in general which were the leading slogans during liberation struggles against the British colonialism.
As if to add salt to the wounds of the citizens, the government launches the so called clean-city Campaign to demolish their slums. As a result, people hold a meeting to protest against government brutality but since the government is acting more dictatorial than father, it ends up arresting people like the Stranger.
THE ROLE AND THE POSITION OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY
This refers to both responsibilities and status of woman in family in particular and in the society at large. A woman is portrayed by the playwright in different positions both positive and negative ones as follows;
Women as petty trader
The term petty trader refers to a trader who engages in small business. In this play, the playwright assigns this position to the wife of Kenyan freedom fighter, Njango. Njango is shown conducting petty trade at Uhuru Market selling soup and some other types of food-stuffs to the slum dwellers.
Women as aware
Awareness refers to the situation in which a person is having knowledge or perception of a certain fact or situation. In our play, the playwright portrays wanjiro as a girl having self awareness on the importance of education in life. Wanjiro was a little bit envious of her brother’s education due to the fact that he has been sent to school while herself was not.
Woman as a poor man
A poor person is that person who lacks sufficient money to live at a standard considered comfortable or normal. In other words, a poor person is the one that is considered inferior to others of the same type or group. In this book, many people are portrayed by the writer to live in extreme poverty particularly the slum dwellers at Uhuru Market.
A good example of a female character is Njango whose shelter is shown to be made of cardboard and rotting tin. As that is not enough, Njango and her daughter Wanjiro share the floor as a bed.
Woman as tribalism.
Tribalism is a person with behavior or attitudes that are based on being loyal to a tribe or other social group. In this book, Njango is the female character portrayed to be very tribalist that is why she cannot see the reason as to why her daughter (Wanjiro) engaging in love relationship with a man called Asinjo from another tribe.
Woman as a humiliated person
A humiliated person refers to the one whose dignity or pride is damaged especially publicly.
Most of women shown in this book are represented to be the victims of male’s humiliation. For example they are abused by men and called bad names. A good example of this is the 2nd Customer who calls “the old whore”. Not only that but also Njango is further publicly humiliated when she witnesses her own hut being pushed down by the bulldozer.
This refers to an irrational, but usually deep-seated belief in the magical effects of a specific action or ritual, especially in the likelihood that good or bad luck will result from performing it. the slum dwellers are explained to believe that the stranger has the magic power to blind the eyes of people from the City Council and defeat them.
The stranger tries to educate them that he does not work in magic, he does not have the power of a witch doctor and the magic is unity for them to stand together but some of the slum dwellers do not agree to his idea.
the slum dwellers in the uhuru market are shown to be in classes. In (page 46), the stranger says the so called uhuru (independence) has brought people who love driving Mercedes Benz and long American cars (upper class) and those who starve in slums (lower class).
In (page 45), Asinjo tells Wanjiro that he knows every part of the city, from Kolo where Europeans live to West lands and Kabete where rich Africans have bought stone houses. This shows that there are places for upper and lower classes.
STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE
slums dwellers are shown to fight for their independence though things take a dramatic turn when uhuru (independence) seems not to help them getting rid of the previous problems. In (page 47), the stranger says, “We fought for uhuru because we were told it would mean decent houses! and decent jobs! But where are the houses?” In (page 46) the stranger says, “I was one of these who fought for uhuru in the forests and detention camps. But what has uhuru brought us?” Njango says her husband went to the forest, Dedan Kimathi led them, he was captured and shot dead like a dog, this gives an example of a class struggle for independence.
This refers to the behavior or attitudes that are based on being loyal to a tribe or other social group. Njango forbids her daughter not to marry Asinjo because of coming from another tribe. In (page 49), Njango says, “With that man, a man from another tribe. A man without a job?” This shows that Njango is a tribalist woman.
Is the name given to a literary work. It can be direct or indirect title. This Time Tomorrow is the direct title as it shows a disappointed woman who is a widow (Njango) whose slum is demolished and has nowhere to go. Her husband was shot dead like a dog in the forest, she is helpless, yet the City Council forces her to leave her home without any compensation.
In (page 50), the woman cries, “They are herding us out like cattle. Where shall I go now, tonight? Where shall I be this time tomorrow?” Njango
presents the class of poor people (slum dwellers) in Uhuru market who are poorly mistreated by the upper class.
Means when and where (time and place) a literary work was written. This Time Tomorrow was written in 1970. The playwright has made the use of real setting, the places named in this play do exist in the country of Kenya example Kabete, Westlands, Uhuru, Kolo (Kolobot).
Refers to how a literary work is arranged, it can be chronological (straight forward plot) or non-chronological plot. This Time Tomorrow has made the use of non chronological plot, it starts from the end to the beginning. The play opens with a journalist who reads an article which explains things that are later found in the end.
The article explains about the rotting tins flew high in the air, the cardboards and the dry mud squeaked and the way slum dwellers have been swept which makes the place to be as quiet as the Kalahari or Sahara desert, a reader should finish reading in order to understand what is said in the opening of this play. It is therefore arranged non-chronologically.
Diction: Refers to the choice of words in a literary work. The playwright has made the use of Swahili word example “uhuru” which means independence. There is also the choice words which are formal used in legal language example “Civil Disobedience”
The uses of figures of speech example “simile” which is the comparison of two things or persons by using conjunctive words (like, as….as, resemble) In (page 39), Njango says, “They shot him dead like a dog”. In (page 36), Njango says, “And such lips – as big as mountain”. The use of personification where non-living things are given human ability, example in (page35) Wanjiro says, “The village is waking up” This is the use of personification as the village does not have an ability to wake up.
The use of hyperbolic language, in (page 36), Njango says, “And such lips – as big as a mountain. So black – blacker than the soot on the pot” In a normal circumstance a human being can not have big lips like those of mountains, it is beyond the reality. This is the use of hyperbole.
The use of conversational language in a dialogue. Njango is seen in dialogue with Wanjiro, the stranger and customers, Asinjo with Wanjiro, the journalist and shoemaker. The language has been used in form of dialogue.
The following are the characters and characterization housed under this time tomorrow.
She is the central character of the play who lives in slums
She is a protagonist (hero) who fought during liberation war
She is the mother of WANJIRO.
She is a widow, her husband died during liberation struggle in the forest (MAU MAU movement).
She engages in petty (small business) thus she earns her living by is selling soup at Uhuru Market
Her house is made of cardboards and shares the floor with the daughter as a bed.
She is tribalism for example she is against inter tribe marriages because she rejects Wanjiro from been married to Asinjo on the ground of tribe.
She is abandoned by her daughter Wanjiro who decides to elope with Asinjo and goes to live with him in town leaving her mother alone.
She warns or advice Wanjiro to be careful with city boys because majority of them are terrible makers. This was when Asinjo tried to convince her to go with him in Town.
She represents group of women who care for their family despite hardship kind of life they have.
She is a daughter of a Kenyan freedom fighter and a girl friend of Asinjo.
She is not happy with poor life she lives with her mother at Uhuru Market especially sleeping on the floor and selling soup while her father was a field marshal. (war fighter).
She is naturally beautiful but not smart due to poverty.
She has not been sent to school due to her brother because he is sent to his uncle who appears to live in town to attend school leaving Wanjiro helping her mother in domestic activities like fetching water sweeping and selling soup and the likes.
She loves ASINJO and wants to marry him but she faces protest from her mother who does not support the idea of been married to him.
She admires wearing like white people and walks like European lady thus a westernized.
She finally goes to marry Asinjo despite the impossible conditions posed by her mother.
She represents group of girls who are easily cheated by men and who can’t take precaution especially on the decision they made.
He is an activist who does not live in the slums.
He conscientious people about their rights and makes people/slum dwellers become aware of humiliation, exploitation and demolition of slums.
He is aware that in order to succeed, strong determination, organized struggles and unity are must.
He is courageous since he remained alone when others ran away until is arrested by the police officer. For making people to be involved in violence and civil disobedience.
He was one of those who fought for Uhuru in the forest and in the detention camps.
He is believed by many especially the slum dwellers to work in magic.
He represents group of people who are ready to endanger their life just for majority gain.
He is a shoe maker at Uhuru Market mending a shoe here and there among the slum dwellers to earn his living.
He is real an active member of the party as he took oath of loyalty in 1950 and fought for freedom in the forest.
He later on arrested and taken (sent) to Manyani concentration camp to join with other activists.
He is uneducated man who fails to recognize his age
Then is a tribalism man protest against the new government’s decisions to demolish the slums without giving people the place to go.
He represents group of people in our society who keep on living terribly irrespective their vital role they contributed in the society.
He is among the slum dwellers who buy soups at Njango’s place.
He suggests that they should hold the meeting with strangers so as to protest against the demolition of their slums done by the government.
He believes in magic power and Thinks that the stranger can perform his magic, thus he is a coward.
He tells the people at the meeting that the police are coming and cautions them that they have batons (guns) an incidence that caused people to fear and then run away.
He represents group of people in our society who aim at bringing just and development of the society.
He buys soup at Njango’s place as well as one of the residents of Uhuru Market.
He protest/complains about the price of soup to Njango by using abusive language to her.
He believes that stranger has magic to save them, therefore he supports the idea of meeting with him.
He is a coward, e.g. he tells others to run and he runs away.
He also fails his friends at the meeting due to disunity.
He represents people who live ordinary kind of life but who also believe in the power of witch crafts.
He is also a slum dweller and buys soup at Njango’s place.
He also protests against slum demolition done by the government.
He supports the stranger’s idea by asking his fellows to stand firm during the meeting by not worrying anything.
He represents people who are committed, self determined in bringing development in their society.
He works with the city council Health department as government official
He reminds people in UHURU market to move away since the slums are going to be demolished in order to implement the clean city campaign.
He is not among the slum dwellers.
He is among the few people who enjoy the National cake, living a good life while in the early beginning, he was a common man.
He helps in forcing the people to move from slums.
He drives Njango out of her hut out of her wish.
He represents people who harass others without taking into account their humanity.
He is a young man from another tribe.
He loves Wanjiro and wants to marry her.
He was chased away and insulted and chased away by Njango because she does not want him to marry her daughter.
He was formerly unemployed but later on becomes a tax-driver
He convinces Wanjiro to go away with him and ignore her mother claiming she is old and ignorant.
He represents group of youth especially boys who tend to bribe (cheat) girls by pretending even to those things like wealth which they even possess.
He is also a slim dweller who lives in poor life at the Uhuru Market
He did many jobs in the past such as washing, sweeping and cooking for the white people during and after the war.
He is one those people who was driven out during the emergency.
He once or twice slept in public latrines
He is illiterate to the extent that he is not sure of his age, he came to the city but does not remember when exactly
He has a terrible experience in his life that involved sleeping in shop-verandas, trenches and in public latrines as there was nowhere to lie down.
He represents people who are extremely tortured and victimized by the system.
He reports different events in the society like Government’s decisions to demolish the slums, people’s reaction against demolition of slums.
He is not among the slum dwellers.
He interviewed people during the demolition of slum especially Tinsmith and Shoemaker to get their views about clean-the city campaign.
He is among the people in the civil services.
He arrests the stranger for making people to involve in violence and civil disobedience, and he accused him for insisting the crowd (people).
He is a cruel man who harasses people.