When answering history essay type questions you should adhere to the following procedures

1. Read the asked questions thoroughly so that you can detect what exactly the said questions demand. In order to know exactly what the demand of the question try to observe the terminologies used in the question.

2. Make a recall on the points necessary in answering the given questions.

3. Start writing your essay by providing introduction: Normally, an introduction should clearly define the key words, giving periodisation, as well as other relevant issues based on the asked questions.

4. Then, create a coherent (linking) words/statement in order to draw attention to the one who will be reading your essay.


5. Put your points at the beginning of every paragraph; never hide your points by putting it at the middle of your paragraph. Normally the given point has to be well explained followed by relevant and plausible examples basing on the asked question.

6. Create a relevant conclusion, when concluding avoids making repetition of the given points, you should give your general comment/judgment. Most of the students fail to score in this part since they provide conclusion, which do not qualify in academic writing.

7. Make sure that you maintain tidiness and cleanliness by having good handwriting, using simple and well grammatical English so that your work can be more attractive to anyone who sees it.

8. Be precise in choosing the right question. Sometimes a question carries two sides for example, a candidate may be asked to discuss the causes and effects of First World War. In this regard, the allocation of marks will base on causes and effects thus do not put much focus on only one side rather both.

9. Alternatively, if there are other questions that you may opt it is potential to skip a question that has two sides and instead attempt a question that direct ask a candidate to produce only points basing on one side example, Explain the roles of agents of colonialism to the colonization of Africa.


Analyze six characteristic features of first non-exploitative mode of production

Communalism refers to as the first mode of production, which was non-exploitative in nature. It implied the communal ownership of major means of production by all members. Each specific group was assigned communal works to perform according to their age, size and capabilities. It was mainly practiced by societies like Tindiga, Hadzabe and Dorobo.

The following are the characteristics of the communal mode of production.

It was characterized by communal ownership of major means of production. This is because all major means of production in terms of land and labor were owned and controlled by the whole society, additionally, there was no private ownership of major means of production and the products obtained were equally divided to all members in society.

Production relations was based on cooperation as there was no exploitation of man by many people cooperated during production without allocating specific task to individual person and the product obtained especially out from the harvest or hunting exercise was further equally shared by all members.

It was characterized by low level of development of productive forces such as tools (hoe and axes) developed to be used in production was so poor (crude), this forced them to perform subsistence agriculture in which production is only meant for food source and surplus if present is sold.


It was characterized by low level of development of political institutions such as political institution by this time like armies were hardly developed, there was no any army or court that was prepared but for the case of emergency the whole clan or communal area would have to go into war to their interests.

Societies lived in small kingship according to the blood relations. This was seen through clan expansion in a small area as people lived basing on the relationship existed.

Generally, communalism did not last for long time because of the social changes that occurred, the increased in population and need for surplus production was few factor to mention that spearheaded the need to change mode of production to slavery mode of production, which was indeed exploitative in nature.


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