With vivid examples explain the reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.
The Portuguese rule in East Africa
Before Portuguese invasion Africans had contact with Asia where by Africans got different commodities from Asia as well as Asia took different items from Africa.
But later trade was disturbed by Portuguese along the East African coast during the 16th c. The Portuguese started to control Indian Ocean trade, but indigenous of East African coast did not remain silent, where by indigenous started to resist Portuguese invasion.
During this contact the most important countries in western were Spain and Portugal. These countries were included in trade through trading routes to India which passed off through Italy and the Muslims lands of the Middle East.
But due to the occurrence of wars in Muslims empire made the trade difficult and more expensive. Therefore Portuguese started to find routes of the sea in order to establish trading empire in the East for the aim of controlling all trades in Europe. This was made possible by the invention of ships.
The reasons for the fall of Portuguese rule in east Africa.
Due to poor climatic conditions, Portuguese rule come to an end in East Africa because they suffered from tropical disease example malaria, which killed Portuguese to the large extent and most of them were physically weakened which make then to fail to stand still for the long period of fighting.
Due to the loss of their monopoly in trade, these make the years of Portuguese in East Africa numbered, this was after British and Dutch East India Company replacing the Portuguese traders on the Eastern shores of Indian Ocean. This cause the Portugal fail to collect revenue due to the decline of trade.
Lack of experienced and well educated officials, Portugal was unable to provide enough man power in the East Africa region, also there were few number of soldiers to support the empire as well as despite of having few officials in the coast but those few officials were harsh, corrupt, ruthless and inefficient for their duties. This cause the failure of Portuguese in East Africa.
Due to the constant resistances, this is another reasons for the fall of Portuguese in East Africa were by Portugal challenged by African Local people, Arabs and their fellow Europeans. Example Turkey attacked the coast of East Africa in 1588, also the serious attack were in 1622, in 1697 the Omanis were strong enough to surround fort Jesus but Portuguese refuse to surrender, on 12th December 1698 Arabs were able to break into fort Jesus and this marked the end of Portuguese rule in East Africa.
Role played by Oman to the coastal people, Omanis and other nations supported indigenous people to oppose Portuguese empire. Example in 1652 an Oman fleet sailed in Zanzibar coast and Pate Therefore this made them to capture fort Jesus and marked the end of Portuguese in East Africa.